Shadowsocks 101 and How It's Different From VPN

There is no perfect tool.


VPN (aka Virtual Private Network)

The purpose of VPN is to build a Private Network over the Public Network for encrypted communication purpose and is widely used in Enterprises initially. VPN gateway essentially works by encyprting data packets and changing the destination of data packets to achieve remote access. VPN has many different forms, mainly differentiated by the protocol they use, such as PPTP, L2TP, OpenVPN, etc.

Shadowsocks (aka Socks5 Proxy)

Socks is a circuit-level gateway which is quite low-level. It is developed by David Koblas in 1990 and used as the open standard for Internet RFC ever since. Socks is not restricted to certain OS, unlike HTTP Proxy and application layer proxy. Socks Proxy merely transfer data packet and does not care about which protocol is used, which makes it much master than application layer proxy


  • VPN
    Like its name, you are connected to a private network and all your access to Internet goes out from this Private Network. You will probably be assigned a private IP address just like you are assigend a public IP by your ISP.

  • Socks5 Proxy
    It just builds a tunnel between you and the proxy server and put all your network request thru this tunnel. And let the proxy server transfer your request for you to the destination. You never entered any new network. And the proxy server also handles the resposne from the destination and transfer that back to you. There is no further modificaiton of the data. If your data is encrypted originally, it’s secure.

    It’s like UPS/Fedex, you want to send a package to your friend, you let Fedex to ship it for you. And when your friend are ready to ship something back to you, he/she will give it to Fedex and let them give back to you.

Design Concepts

  • VPN iks developed for secure data transferring inside a Enterprise private network. And what matters the most is security. However, it is easy to identify VPN data flow; which makes it really vulnerable to the GFW.

    Because of this

    • PPTP is banned in most regions
    • L2TP also experience interference and disconnect in most regions
    • OpenVPN is banned as well.
    • IKEv2 is not banned but the GFW has started to perfrom middle-man attack on it.

    Thus, VPN is really struggling with GFW.

  • Shadowsocks is developed to pennetrate the GFW, deliberately made inefficient and difficult for the GFW to spot and block. Which makes it a way better tool to penetrate the GFW.

In conclusion, Shadowsocks emphasizes anti-disturbance and anti-interference; while VPN emphasizes security. For example, the most secure VPN protocol OpenVPN is the first to be banned by GFW.

There is no perfect tool. To some extent, you can say VPN and Shadowsocks are totally different technologies.


  • GFW refers to Great Fire Wall which is a censorship agent in China dedicated to ban information on the Internet which the Party doesn’t want you to access.
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