ARTH Final


  • Identification 5x
  • ​Comparison 4x
  • Essay


1.11 Hall of Bulls, Lascaux Cave (France), c. 15000 BCE

  • depicts cows, bulks, horses and deer along the natural ledges of the rock
  • the most characteristic features have been emphasized
  • horns, eyes, hooves are shown as seen from the front, yet heads and bodies are rendered in profile in a system known as a composite pose

1.20-22 Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain (England), c. 2900-1500 BCE

  • Arthurian literature: Merlin did it
  • Post and lintel construction
  • Lines up with solstices -> calendar
  • The site is important
  • Avenue found from Stonehenge to river
  • River is a spiritual transition from life(Woodhenge) to death(Stonehenge)

Ancient Near Eastern

2.15 Stele of Hammurabi, from Sippar, Babylon (Iraq), diorite, c. 1792-1750 BCE

  • Code of injustice
  • Hammurabi: I have communication with God that no one has
  • Most famous are instances when punishments are specifically tailored to fit crimes—an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a broken bone for a broken bone.
  • Punishments are based on the wealth, class, and gender of the parties—the rights of the wealthy are favored over the poor, citizens over slaves, men over women.
  • Although some of the punishments may seem excessive today, Hammurabi was breaking new ground by regulating laws and punishments rather than leaving them to the whims of rulers or officials.

2.17 Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions, Palace at Nimrud (Iraq), c. 875-860 BCE

  • Assurnasirpal II stands in a chariot pulled by galloping horses and draws his bow against an attacking lion, advancing from the rear with arrows already protruding from its body.
  • Another expiring beast collapses on the ground under the horses. This was prob- ably a ceremonial hunt, in which the king, protected by men with swords and shields, rode back and forth killing animals as they were released one by one into an enclosed area.
  • The imme- diacy of this image marks a shift in Mesopotamian art, away from a sense of timeless solemnity, and toward a more dramatic, even emotional, involvement with the event portrayed.
  • Demonstrates power of ruler.

2.22 Ishtar Gate, Babylon (Iraq), glazed brick, c. 575 BCE

  • The Ishtar Gate is decorated with tiers of dragons (with the head and body of a snake, the forelegs of a lion, and the hind legs of a bird of prey) that were sacred to Marduk, with bulls associated with Adad, the storm god, and with lions associated with Ishtar. Now reconstructed in a Berlin museum, it is installed next to a panel from the throne room in Nebuchadnezzar’s nearby palace, in which lions walk beneath stylized palm trees.
  • glazed - so color survived
  • Saddam Hussein built a palace on a site, now with graffiti
    • conservation nightmare
    • keep it or tear it down
    • they kept it as it is
    • Style
  • formal
  • how does something look
  • communities with shared characteristics have similar styles
  • Stylistic analysis: form -> hypothesis on culture and origin


Early Dynastic Egypt

p. 52 Palette of Narmer, schist, Hierakonpolis, c. 2950 BCE

  • Phonetic hieroglyphs centered at the topof each side of the palette name the king: a horizontal fish (nar) above a vertical chisel (mer). A depiction of the royal palace—seen simultaneously from above, as a groundplan, and frontally, as a façade (front wall of a building)—surrounds Narmer’s name to signify that he is king.

  • The royal processioninspects two rows ofdecapitated enemies,their heads neatlytucked between

    their feet.

3.3 Step Pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara, limestone, c. 2600 BCE

  • Although the step pyramid resembles the ziggurats of Mesopota- mia, it differs in both meaning (signifying a stairway to the sun god Ra) and purpose (protecting a tomb).

Old Kingdom Egypt

3.4-5 Great Pyramids (of Khufu, Khafre & Menkaure), Giza, c. 2575-2450 BCE

  • The site was carefully planned to follow the sun’s east–west path. Next to each of the pyramids was a funerary temple con- nected by a causeway—an elevated and enclosed pathway or cor- ridor—to a valley temple on the bank of the Nile (see FIG. 3–5). When a king died, his body was embalmed and ferried west across the Nile from the royal palace to his valley temple, where it was received with elaborate ceremonies.
3.8 Khafre, from Valley Temple of Khafra, Giza, c. 2500 BCE

  • High relief.
  • Pharaoh’s characteristics: fake beard, bull tail, striped headdress
  • Egypt
    • continuous stylistic culture
    • emphasis on tradition

New Kingdom Egypt

3.1 Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun, c. 1327 BCE

3.18-20 Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, 1579-1075 BCE

3.26 Akhenaten and His Family, limestone, c. 1345 BCE – Amarna Period

  • No longre a ka statue, a fleeting momnet rather than forever
  • seated, casual
  • solar deity
  • headdress blown by wind -> momentary
3.35 Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris, from a Book of the Dead, papyrus, c. 1285 BCE


Archaic Period:

5.18 Metropolitan Kouros, marble, c. 600 BCE

Transition to —> Anonymos Kouros(c 530) —> Doryphoros(c 450)

  • Muscle more detailed
  • Cibtrapposto “in opposition”
  • Dynamism, yet still poised
  • Less stylization, more naturalism

    5.1 Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game, by Exekias, c. 535 BCE

  • Two heroes waiting in the war
  • Ajax(Right): a Greek hero, the second best, same Achilles’s body and armor from Trojans
  • Ajax grabbing the spear, heal off the ground
  • Black figure comes first, then red figure

High Classical Period

5.36 Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, by Iktinos & Kallikrates, c. 447-432 BCE

5.42 Spear-Bearer (Doryphoros), by Polykleitos, c. 450-440 BCE (marble copy of bronze)

Late Classical Period

5.53 Aphrodite of Knidos, by Praxiteles, c. 350 BCE (marble copy of marble)


5.62 Altar from Pergamon, c. 175-150 BCE, marble

5.63 Athena Attacking the Giants, Altar from Pergamon, c. 175-150 BCE, marble

5.64 Laocoön and His Sons, marble, 1st century BCE


6.14 Patrician Carrying Ancestor Busts, late 1st century BCE.

6.20-22 Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE, marble, Rome

6.47-48 Column of Trajan, 113-116 CE, marble, Rome

6.49-52 Pantheon, c. 118-128 CE, Rome

6.65-66 Arch of Constantine, 312-315 CE, marble, Rome

Early Christian

7.17 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c. 359, marble

7.18-20 Oratory of Galla Placidia, c. 425-426, Ravenna (Italy)


8.2-4 Church of Hagia Sophia, Anthemius & Isidorus, 532-537, Istanbul (Turkey)

8.14 Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, late 6th century, encaustic on wood

8.21-22 Christ Pantokrator & Crucifixion, Church of the Dormition, c. 1100, Daphni (Greece)


9.2 The Kaaba, Mecca (Saudi Arabia), before 630

9.6-8 Great Mosque, Cordoba (Spain), begun 785


9.15 Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada (Spain), 1354-1391

9.17 Tile Mosaic Mihrab, Isfahan (Iran), 1354

South & Southeast Asia

10.6 Lion Capital, from an Ashokan pillar at Sarnath, India, c. 250 BCE

10.8 Great Stupa, Sanchi, founded 3rd century BCE, enlarged c. 150-50 BCE

10.10 Chaitya Hall, Karle, India, 1st century BCE-1st century CE

10.12 Standing Buddha, Gandhara, Pakistan, c. 200 CE

10.13 Buddha and Attendants, Mathura, India, c. 100 CE

10.15 Vishnu on the Cosmic Waters, Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, c. 530 CE

10.27 Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho, India, c. 1000 CE

10.30 Rajarajeshavra Temple of Shiva, Thanjavur, India, 1010 CE

10.31 Shiva Nataraja, c. 1050 CE

Chinese Buddhism

11.12 Seated Buddha, cave 20, Yungang, c. 460 CE

11.13 Altar to Amitabha Buddha, 593, bronze

11.20 Seated Guanyin Bodhisattva, c. 1100

Japanese Shinto & Buddhism

12.3 Main Hall, Inner Shrine, Ise, (near Tokyo), rebuilt 2013

12.4 Horyu-ji Compound (near Nara), 7th century

12.5 Hungry Tigress Jataka, panel from the Tamamushi Shrine, Horyu-ji, c. 650

12.6 Tori Busshi, Shaka Triad, Horyu-ji, c. 623

12.11 Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in, Uji (near Kyoto), c. 1053

12.12 Jocho, Amida Buddha, Byodo-in, c. 1053 CE

12.16 Kuya Preaching, before 1207


13.1 Offering 4, La Venta (Mexico), c. 900-400 BCE – Olmec

13.3 Colossal Head, San Lorenzo (Mexico), c. 1200-900 BCE, basalt – Olmec

13.4 Ceremonial Center of Teotihuacan (Mexico), c. 100-650 CE

p. 394 Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok, Yaxchilan (Mexico), 725 – Mayan

13.13 Cylindrical Vessel with Ballgame Scene, c. 600-800 – Mayan

Early Medieval Art

15.1 Chi-rho-iota Page, Book of Kells, Hiberno-Saxon, c. 800

15.4 Hinged Clasp, from the Sutton Hoo burial ship, Anglo-Saxon, 7th c

15.6 Initial Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, Anglo-Saxon, c. 720


16.9 Abbey Church of Notre-Dame, Fontenay (France), 1139-47

16.7 Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy, Abbey Church of Conques (France), c. 900

p. 483 Last Judgment Tympanum, west portal, Church of Saint-Lazare, Autun (France), c. 1130

16.29-30 Bayeux Embroidery, Norman-Anglo-Saxon, c. 1070


17.2 Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, near Paris (France), 1140-44

17.4 West façade, Chartres Cathedral (France), begun c. 1134; rebuilt after 1194 fire

17.5 Royal Portal, West façade, Chartres Cathedral (France), c. 1150

17.9 Nave, Chartres Cathedral (France), c. 1194-1220

17.13 West Façade, Reims Cathedral (France), begun c. 1225

17.15 Nave, Reims Cathedral (France), begun c. 1211

14th-Century (Late Gothic)

18.1&15 Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Effects of Good Government, fresco, Palazzo Pubblico, 1339

18.7-9 Giotto, wall frescoes, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, Padua, 1305

18.10-12 Duccio, Maestà, Siena Cathedral, 1310, tempera

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